# Reference Node and Node Voltages

Reference Node
In circuits, we usually label a node as the reference node also called ground and define the other node voltages with respect to this point. The reference node has a potential of $0 V$ by definition. The following symbol is used to indicate the reference node:

The Reference Node Symbol

As mentioned, the selection of the reference node is arbitrary. However, a wise selection can make the solving easier. As a general rule, it is usually chosen to be
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# Problem 1-4: Elements, Nodes, Loops and Branches

How many elements / nodes / loops / branches does the following circuit have?

Solution
8 elements
6 nodes, as shown:
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